The Northern coast of Egypt extends for about 1050 km (652 miles) from Rafa'h to the east, on the Egyptian-Palestinian border, to Sallum in the west, on the Egyptian-Libyan border. The coastline borders both the Arabian desert and the Sahara, including the Suez Canal and the Nile delta as the northern gateway to Africa. Before the advent of commercial airliners flying directly through Cairo, the Nile and the Gulf of Suez were the main transportation areas for travel further into the African continent, from Europe and Asia. The city of Alexandria, in the center of the coastline, as chosen by Alexander the Great, has been the hub of sea travel between the Mediterranean Sea and the Nile delta for over 2300 years. Egypt's Red Sea coast runs from the Gulf of Suez to the Sudanese border with a total lenth of about 1700 km. Its mineral-rich red mountain ranges inspired the mariners of antiquity to name the sea Mare Rostrum, or the Red Sea.
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern state of Egypt. The civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and it developed over the next three millennia. Its history occurred in a series of comparatively stable periods, labeled by scholars today as Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods. Ancient Egypt reached its pinnacle during what is today called the New Kingdom, after which it entered a period of slow, steady decline. Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers in this late period, and the rule of the pharaohs officially ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered Egypt and made it a province. The success of ancient Egyptian civilization stemmed partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River Valley. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which fueled social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs. The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that facilitated the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known ships, Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature, and the earliest known peace treaty. Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travellers and writers for centuries. A newfound respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy, for Egypt and the world
Dune types A barchan (pronounced bar-KAN) dune, sometimes known as a crescentic dune, is a crescent or U-shaped dune that has its "horns" or tips pointing downwind or away from the wind. Barchans arise where sand supply is limited, where the ground is hard, and where wind direction is fairly constant. They form around shrubs or larger rocks, which act as anchors to hold the main part of the dune in place while the tips migrate with the wind. Barchan dunes occur widely in deserts around Earth. A parabolic dune is similar in shape to a barchan, but its tips point into the wind. Its formation is also influenced by the presence of some type of obstruction, such as a plant or a rock. Just the opposite of a barchan, a parabolic is anchored at its tips by the obstruction, which acts to block the wind, while its main body migrates with the wind, forming a depression between the tips. Because of this formation, parabolic dunes are also known as blowout dunes. A linear, or longitudinal, dune is one that forms where sand is abundant and cross winds converge, often along seacoasts where the winds from the sea and winds from the land meet and push the sand into long lines. These high, parallel dunes can be quite large: Scientists have recorded linear dunes reaching 655 feet (200 meters) in height and 62 miles (103 kilometers) in length. The crests or summits of linear dunes are often straight or slightly wavy. A transverse dune also forms where sand supply is great. This dune is a ridge of sand that forms perpendicular to the direction of the wind. The slip face of a transverse dune is often very steep. A group of transverse dunes resembles sand ripples on a large scale. Deserts in Egypt encompass all these types of Dunes, especially in the Western Sahara.
Flower Photography is a combination of colour, form and passion producing artful tableaus of dancing beauty. The radiating beauty of the delicate petals begs the admirer to gaze deeper into the delicate shape and purpose of these small miracles of nature. They certainly do flaunt their undeniable allure.
Cairo (Arabic: al-Qāhira) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab World. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life. Even before Cairo was established in the tenth century, the land composing the present-day city was the site of national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo is also associated with Ancient Egypt due to its proximity to the Great Sphinx and the pyramids in nearby Giza. Cairo, Egypt, literally meaning the Triumphant City, known is one of the world's largest urban areas and offers many sites to see. It is the administrative capital of Egypt and, near-by, are all of Egypt’s most significant pyramids, such as the Great Pyramids of Giza on the very edge of the city. But there are also ancient temples, tombs, Christian churches, magnificent Muslim monuments, and of course, the Egyptian Antiquities Museum all either within or nearby the city. Cairo offers an incredible selection of shopping, leisure and nightlife activities. Shopping ranges from the famous Khan el-Khalili souk, (or bazaar) largely unchanged since the 14th century, to modern air-conditioned centers displaying the latest fashions. All the bounty of the East can be here. Particularly good buys are spices, perfumes, gold, silver, carpets, brass and copperware, leatherwork, glass, ceramics and mashrabiya.